ANATOMY OF OUR GENES: The Human Body
The human body is made of some 50 trillion to 100 trillion cells, which form the basic units of life and combine to form more complex tissues and organs. Inside each cell, genes make up a “blueprint” for protein production that determines how the cell will function. Genes also determine physical characteristics or traits. The complete set of some 20,000 to 25,000 genes is called the genome. Only a tiny fraction of the total genome sets the human body apart from those of other animals.
Most cells have a similar basic structure. An outer layer, called the cell membrane, contains fluid called cytoplasm. Within the cytoplasm are many different specialized “little organs” called organelles. The most important of these is the nucleus, which controls the cell and houses the genetic material in structures called chromosomes. Another type of organelle is mitochondrion. These “cellular power plants” have their own genome and do not recombine during reproduction.
Chromosomes carry hereditary, genetic information in long strings of DNA called genes. Humans have 22 numbered pairs of chromosomes and a single pair of sex chromosomes—XX in females and XY in males. Each chromosomal pair includes one inherited from the father and one from the mother. If unwound, the microscopic DNA strands in one cell’s nucleus would stretch to over six feet (two meters) in length.
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is the set of genetic instructions for creating an organism. DNA molecules are shaped like a spiral staircase called a double helix. Each stair is composed of the DNA bases A, C, T, and G. Some segments of these bases contain sequences, like A-T-C-C-G-A-A-C-T-A-G, which constitute individual genes. Genes determine which proteins individual cells will manufacture, and thus what function particular cells will perform.
read more, photos and info from Nat Geo
From THE OUTER WORLDS TOURISM BOARD:
VISIT BEAUTIFUL JUPITER!
Travel Posters by Ron Guyatt
Explanatory descriptions by Ron Guyatt
Commonly called Trojans or Trojan asteroids and less often Greek asteroids, the Jovian asteroids are a large group of objects that share the orbit of the planet Jupiter around the Sun. Relative to Jupiter, each trojan librates around one of Jupiter’s two stable Lagrangian points, L4 and L5, that respectively lie 60° ahead of and behind the planet in its orbit.
The planet Jupiter has a system of rings, known as the rings of Jupiter or the Jovian ring system. It was the third ring system to be discovered in the Solar System, after those of Saturn and Uranus.
It was first observed in 1979 by the Voyager 1 space probe and thoroughly investigated in the 1990s by the Galileo orbiter. It has also been observed by the Hubble Space Telescope and from Earth for the past 23 years. Ground-based observations of the rings require the largest available telescopes.
THE GREAT RED SPOT
The Great Red Spot is a persistent anticyclonic storm, 22° south of Jupiter’s equator; Earth observations establish a minimum storm lifetime of, variously, 184 years to possibly 349 years. The storm is large enough to be visible through Earth-based telescopes,
On Location in Northern California
35 years ago, Carl Sagan and his wife and longtime collaborator Ann Druyan stood on the windswept cliffs along the coast of Northern California with their co-writer, astronomer Steven Soter. Together with a small television crew, they filmed the first few minutes of what would go on to become a watershed moment of nonfiction television, the opening scene to “COSMOS: A Personal Voyage.” From the very first line - “The cosmos is all that is or was or ever will be” - viewers were swept up in an adventure across space and time, one that would eventually enthrall almost a billion viewers worldwide.
Last March, Druyan returned to that very spot, together with a new television crew, to embark on the first of 70 shoot days required to bring the epic “COSMOS: A SpaceTime Odyssey” to the next generation of searchers. These images capture executive producer, writer, and director Druyan together with executive producer and director Brannon Braga, executive producer Mitchell Cannold, and host Neil deGrasse Tyson as they once again prepared to take worldwide audiences on board the Ship of the Imagination for an adventure they will never forget.
All photos by: Sarah Mozal
Watch COSMOS on Hulu: http://www.hulu.com/watch/604551
Follow COSMOS on Tumblr: cosmosontv
I’m doing an essay contest in school about a book that really moved me. The book is obviously going to be Pale Blue Dot. There’s another contest about a scientist. BAM, Sagan.
SCI CODE: Theories Are A Big Deal!
In this episode of SCI CODE, we take another look at using the word theory.
Colloquial use implies that theories are mere ideas. Which is totally wrong! When people say things like it’s just a theory, science becomes trivial. What kind of future would lies ahead, if science loses its value?
Let us never find out.
Help set the record straight and spread the SCI CODE!
The Cosmic Calendar: Then and Now
Cosmos: A Personal Voyage + A Spacetime Odyssey
I finally figured out the location of that beach in the first scenes of Cosmos!
It’s somewhere in California, about a hundred miles south of San Francisco, 14 miles south of Monterey. The exact coordinates of the place Sagan/Tyson stood are, more or less:
I don’t even know if anybody else cares about this, and I’m sure there are plenty of people who know already, but I’ve always wanted to know and could never find it through basic Google searches. I only found it after searching the California coastline in Google Earth until I found a place that matched the first scene in the new Cosmos.